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Genetic Engineering

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What do we mean by Genetic engineering?

Genetic engineering can be described as the process of modification of genetic organism by using recombination of DNA technology. Genetic engineering is used for artificial manipulation of an organism for getting desired phenotype.

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Understanding Genetic engineering

Genetic engineering is the process of changing, modification, and recombination of the organism. Genetic engineering is used to modify and manipulate the organism by the process of reproduction and heredity. Genetic engineering is defined as the process of extracting the DNA from genome of an organism and combining it with another person’s DNA. It is also described as genetic manipulation and genetic modification; it involves the direct modifications of genes of an organism through biotechnology.

The concept of genetic engineering came into the picture in 1972, when Paul Berg recombinant DNA molecule of monkey virus SV40 with the lambda virus. Genetic engineering is used to genetically modify organism. Organs are modified or manipulated by using genetic engineering to get specific results. It is the method of recombining DNA technology in which molecules of one organism is inserted in another organism by combining with cells and vitro. These modifications, manipulation of organism take place with the help of different methods including viral insertion, gene targeting, transfection of synthetic chromosomes, and nuclear transplantation.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Explaining Genetic Engineering.

Genetic Engineering involves several aspects of gene function including theoretical and practical aspects.  The process of genetic engineering is performed by using different recombinant DNA techniques. These techniques help in creating the bacteria that will combine with human insulin, a Hepatitis B vaccine, growth hormone and so on. In plants, dysfunctional genes replace the normal functioning genes to fix their nitrogen and genetic diseases.

The process of genetic engineering includes several aspects such as recombinant DNA technology through inserting of foreign genes into the plasmids and form of bacteria. Plasmids are not part of the bacterium’s chromosome, which is treated as the main repository of the genetic related information of an organism.

  • The process of genetic engineering is start with the extraction of Plasmid (small part of DNA) from yeast cell/ bacteria.
  • After that, a part of plasmid is cut out with the focus of restricting enzymes, also called molecular scissors.
  • The focus will be on modifying the plasmid genetically by inserting the human insulin in the gap of plasmid, and then genetically modified plasmid present in new yeast cell/bacteria.
  • After introducing genetically modified plasmid, the cell will divide into many fragments to produce more insulin and grown in big fermentation vessels that fill with all the needed nutrients.
  • After completing the fermentation, the mixture of genetically modified plasmid is filtered and take a form of insulin, then this is distributed.

What are the different techniques of genetic engineering?

The genetic engineering process is performing by using several techniques; it is the process of modifying an organism’s DNA with the other organism, like plants, animals which have been gone through with genetic engineering process for agricultural, medical, and other purposes. The genetic engineering techniques include CRISPR/Cas9 system, which is popular as molecular scissors. It is an intrinsic system that is used for editing genetic information. The CRISPR/Cas9 system allows modifying organism’s genes by changing its genetic sequence with specific improvements.

The genetic engineering introduces new and desirable traits by manipulating and modifying an organism’s DNA. The CRISPR/Cas9 technology helps in editing gene of an organism and modifying it with the aim of providing new traits. CRISPR refers to the group of sequences of DNA found in molecular (genomes)/ prokaryotic genomes of an organism, including archaea and bacteria. The technology helps in customising the nucleotide sequence.

Genetic engineering techniques may include molecular cloning that is used for recombinant DNA, gene delivery used for transformation, transfection, and transduction, and genome editing that is used for editing the genes of an organism by using TALEN/CRISPR.

How does genetic engineering affect human health and wellbeing?

The genetic engineering definitely affected scientific research, medicine, agriculture, and industry. By genetic engineering, researchers can insert foreign genes and transgenes into bacteria and viruses with the help of molecular biology study of gene functions. Bacteria have been recorded as the first organism, which is genetically engineered. The researchers and scientists found the synthetic insulin which is used by patients with diabetes.

With the technique of gene therapy, people can have new and desired traits by inserting a new gene into their cells. The gene therapy is successful in providing the treatment of untreatable and serious genetic diseases. Scientists modify viruses according to the need of the individual by doing research to deliver individual’s desired genes. Scientists are able to treat different ailments by customising the viruses and replace the defective gene by new one, these human disorders may include Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID).

Genetic engineering includes different technologies that are used to modify viruses such as CRISPR/Cas9 system on the popular technique for gene therapy. It is used as a molecular tool to alter, add, and remove genetic material and helps in correcting the errors in genes which may cause Hepatitis B, cardiovascular, Duchenne muscular dystrophy and cataract disease.

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