Terms Beginning With 'i'

ICON Cryptocurrency (ICX)

  • January 02, 2020
  • Team Kalkine

ICON (ICX) is a cryptocurrency or a form of digital asset that allows multiple blockchains that includes other cryptocurrencies to exchange information via ICON's central node.

What is the Dark Web?  The dark web is one such portion of the World Wide Web which is not accessible by regular search engines. The dark web is considered a hotbed for criminal activities, and it is much more than that. Various websites exist on an encrypted network inside the dark web. Standard web browsers and programs cannot find these websites. Once inside the dark web, different sites and pages can be accessed like one does on the web. Scientists believe that the internet we see is only 4% of the entire ocean of the web, meaning the 96% consists of the "Deep and Dark Web".  The user interface used in the dark web is usually internet-based, but it utilises special software which is not part of the standard ones. There are dozens of web browsers to surf the internet, but they all work in the same way. These standard browsers use ports and protocols to request, transfer and view data on the Internet. The website you access may look familiar, but as you enter, it may be illegal or something familiar but otherwise not monitored by anyone else. Therefore, the deep web and the dark web are famous for being anonymous. Also read: Cyber Espionage Campaign: Strings that tie China, Australia and the US How to access dark web browser? In order to access a few areas which are restricted, the user may need a password and a process to follow. A special software called TOR (The Onion Router) or the Freenet has these non-standard connections. These browsers are unlike standard internet browsers and have a process to access. They allow the users to browse around the dark web and are focused on keeping the user identity anonymous. If hacked or accessed, the regular web browser can easily provide user information such as who the user is and whereabouts. Though the dark web is providing 100% anonymity, federal agencies have been successful in tracking down criminal activities on the dark web. It is often said that the person you are talking to on the dark web could either be an FBI agent or a criminal. Image: Kalkine   What happens inside the world of the dark web?  The dark web is famous for allowing sinister activities, but many users go on the dark web to access information which otherwise may not be accessible on standard internet. Such as users from extremely oppressive governments who cut access to the world for their citizens. Unfortunately, such confidential environments also provide open platforms to criminals, terrorists and other such individuals involved in illegal activities.   Hence, experts advise users to not access the dark web even out of curiosity as it is a lawless environment. There have been many incidents where innocent, curious users were trapped and forced to get involved in criminal activities or their digital devices hacked and compromised without their knowledge.  A study conducted by a University of Surrey researcher Dr Michael McGuires in 2019, Into the Web of Profit, shows that the dark web has become worse in recent times. Since 2016 of all the listings on the dark web suggested, 60% could harm companies. Everything illegal and criminal can be found on the dark web, it also has other legitimate options such as chess clubs or book clubs, but because of the anonymity, the user will not know whom he/she is interacting with. Inside the dark web, anonymity and lawless nature make the crimes which exist otherwise in our society hard to trace.  The payment procedure inside the dark web is also different from the World Wide Web. Most often, Bitcoin and Monero cryptocurrency are used for the transactions.    RELATED READ: Knock Knock! Cybercriminal at Your Doorstep   What’s the difference between the deep web and dark web? The dark web is part of the entire deep web and is hidden from regular browsing access. Most people confuse the deep web and the dark web as one entity. It is not. The deep web content includes anything hidden and restricted behind the security wall such as content which otherwise requires paywall or sign-in or blocked by the author. Content which cannot be easily accessible on regular internet such as medical records, membership websites, paid content are available on the deep web; hence it is also called Invisible Web.  No one really knows the total size of the internet, but the experts believe that the standard World Wide Web consists of only 4% internet, the deep web consists of 90% and dark web consists of 6% of the entire internet.  ALSO READ: Technology has changed the way we work amid the COVID-19 crisis: A look at in-demand technologies Image: Kalkine     Also read: It happens again, NZX being bullied by Cyber-attackers- Down for the fourth day   What kind of risk companies face due to the dark web?  The Into the Web of Profit report listed below threats various organisations around the world are facing, especially the ones who have weak or insufficient cybersecurity measures.   Malware attacks Distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks Botnets Trojan, keyloggers, exploits  Espionage  Credentials access  Phishing  Refunds Customer data Operational data Financial data Intellectual property/ trade secrets    Also read: Cybersecurity and the Requirement of a Resilient Environment in Australia  Are there advantages and disadvantages to the dark web?  The dark web provides complete anonymity, the users get complete privacy to perform any activity, be it illegal or legal. Many countries in the world still have authoritarian regimes offering no civil rights to their people. To such oppressed lot, the dark web provides an opportunity to access news, information, data and also express their views. The dark web is also a perfect place for law agencies to map criminal activities while being undercover. It is also easy to commit gruesome crimes through the dark web as it is complicated and lawless. Criminals can easily use the dark web to compromise someone's privacy, steal data or private information or even hire someone to commit murder.  Do internet users need to be concerned about the dark web?  The simple answer is no unless the user is using the dark web. Study says that most young people visit the dark web out of curiosity. They do not want to indulge in any criminal activity but want to see how the hidden and secret world of the dark web operates. And that is where the possibility of the electronic device IP address getting hacked by other criminals to perform their criminal activities lies.  The earliest use of darknet dates back to the year 2000. Freenet was created at the University of Edinburgh based on a student research paper. Ian Clark wrote the paper in 1999 on the possibility of such an encrypted internet base. Freenet was created to oppose censorship and provide a platform for free speech. The most powerful dark web is TOR, and it was created by the United States government to have a secure encrypted communication in case of emergency and complete disaster. Even today, many law agencies are secretly active inside the world of the dark web to gain access in the criminal world and stay one step ahead.

What is a Baby Boomer?  According to Merriam Webster - Baby Boomer is a person born during a period in which there is a marked rise in a population's birthrate. This term is used primarily for a person born in the United States following the end of the Second World War and in the years from 1946 to 1964. Though this is the literal meaning, in general terms, this word is used to describe the older section of our society.   What is the story behind the baby boomer term?  Most nations' economies and industries were destroyed after the World War 2, and only the US was thriving. The country turned its war production into consumer products to meet the world demand, and it had no such competition from other countries. It led to the fastest growing economic prosperity for the nation and created the highest standard of living in any country ever witnessed in such a short span of time. From the automobile to telecommunication to atomic energy, most of the industries in the US were booming along with its population. Hence the children born during this time are called boomers.  Generational cohorts are defined mainly by birth year, not current age, there are other cohorts such as Generation X, Generation Y or Millennials, and Generation Z. The term "Millennial" has become popular, and Generation Z is the youngest people on the planet right now.  Also read: Millennials on Crowd Media's Radar, Tapping into Influencer Market Space  The baby boomer generation is the progeny of the Silent Generations and precede Generation X. They are also known as parent of the Millennials. The silent generations grew up with the hardship of the Great Depression and won World War 2. On the other hand, baby boomers had everything handed to them in the era of newfound prosperity.  The first use of the word baby boomer is from January 1963. The Daily Press newspaper article described an increase of college enrollments as the oldest boomers coming of age. In the Oxford English Dictionary, the term dates to a January 23, 1970 article published in the newspaper The Washington Post. This new generation of the Post War era were the inhabitants of the modern world, which concluded the war following it countries around the world came together to lay the foundation of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Its purpose is to provide equal human rights and also value and protect all lives regardless of faith, colour, and gender.  Also read: Retirement, Baby Boomer Generation and Australia's Tax Scenario When were the baby boomers born?  In most of the Western countries, the baby boomers are referred to those born immediately after the end of World War II with the rise of the birth rate that came with it. Interestingly in Australia, the birth rate was on the rise, even during WWII. In Europe, birth rates started rising from the mid-1930s, and it saw a post-war baby boom which lasted till the late 1960s. In China, the baby boom cohort is the largest in the world. For Korea, the baby boom happened after the Korean War. Its government then encouraged people to have two children.   In the US, baby boomers are as much as 20% of the entire American population. The population played a substantial role in shaping American culture at large. Currently, most boomers are at retirement age, a matter of great concern as to how the country will deal with the ageing population. Why is the baby boomer’s generation so significant?  The generation before baby boomers faced a lot of difficulty in the US. They saw the Great Depression; during the war, they endured food shortages etc. When it was all over this generation could finally afford to have a lot of children. The post-war era also saw a wave of unprecedented economic prosperity. With it came the optimism for a better life. The spike in birth rate elevated American fertility rate hike, and it continued for another 18 years.  With the growth of these boomers from babies to children to adults to now seniors, the US reshaped itself. Different industries saw unprecedented growth, manufactures and advertisers targeted this new generation in the new prosperous world. Baby boomers dominated the popular culture in the 1950s and 1960s. They led the social change, which changed the basic fabric of the country. Be it the Civil Rights Movements or protest against the Vietnam War, the boomers were the forefront of it. They also gave a platform to the feminist movement. Their concerns and life experiences show a significant influence on American culture.   How do baby boomers want to plan their life ahead of retirement?  We need to understand the baby boomers are the generation of first men to walk on the moon, and they are the generation which promoted civil rights and encouraged an end to the Vietnam War. They also were high spirited and wanted to change the world to be a better place, but they also witnessed assassinations of iconic figures like Robert Kennedy, Martin Luther King. Depression-era parents raised them. Most importantly, they saw the rise of technology.  Children of Baby boomers have seen a massive change in technology across. A quick read through How has Trading Changed for Millennials? Technology Taking Charge in Shaping Trading Habits, will help to update on how stock trading changed for them.   Now that the baby boomers are at the retirement age or already retired, study suggests most of them plan on fulfilling their bucket list items like travelling or living in the countryside on a farm. The Greatest or the Silent Generation had very few investment options, typically in bonds or certificates of deposit. But baby boomers have a varied range of options to grow their hard-earned money and also enjoy its rewards. Industry experts suggest that the baby boomers may choose not to retire early. It could mean postponing retirement, or consulting or getting a part time job. Another important aspect is healthcare. Many baby boomers are in their last 60s and early 70s, it's never too late to work on the healthcare plan.  Also read: Five Smart Investment Tips for Millennials

What is Wall Street? Wall Street, the Mecca of Financial Transactions in the US, is located in Lower Manhattan City of New York State. ‘Wall Street’ has become another name for financial elitism in the US. Wall Street houses the two largest stock exchanges in the world by market capitalisation, New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) and National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations (NASDAQ). Wall Street is also home to various other stock exchanges, brokerage markets and banking headquarters. Notable among them are the New York Mercantile Exchange, the New York Board of Trade, New York Futures Exchange (NYFE), Goldman Sachs, etc. Brief History of Wall Street: The term ‘Wall Street’ is said to have originated from the Dutch word ‘de waalstraat’ much earlier in the 17th Century, when New York was a part of New Amsterdam and an actual wall existed at the location during 1685-1699. During that time, this area was used as a slave trading market as well as a securities exchange site. However, after the independence of the US, and in the early 19th Century, it became a site for both residential as well as business hubs. However, slowly and steadily, the business outpaced the residential part and Wall Street became the hub of all financial transactions in the US. It was only during the 20th Century that many skyscrapers came into existence on this street, the tallest of them being 40 Wall Street, which is also known as the Trump Building. Wall Street is now one of the most famous tourist attractions in the US and the Wall Street Bull attracts many tourists every day for a photo opportunity. The iconic bronze sculpture represents the aggressive financial optimistic environment and a symbol of prosperity. Image Source: Shutterstock How does Wall Street work?  Wall Street houses businesses that collectively control trillions of dollars and move the markets every single day. As stated earlier, Wall Street has become a symbol of all financial transactions in the US. Wall Street functions to provide a platform for institutions to raise legitimate capital funding. The process is conducted in a centralised trading arena where those wanting to generate funds are provided with a medium of connection. The trading on Wall Street can happen in various forms - be it by issuing bonds or selling the ownership in the businesses through stocks. The government also regularises the capitalism process happening on Wall Street daily. These regulators provide the money to the productive users in a very smooth manner. Secondly, the financial hub also provides a secondary market to businesses to find investors, in order to raise capital. This bridge helps the markets move towards success. Moreover, Wall Street also houses firms which assist the investors so that they can manage their primary profession or activity. The outsourcing procedure is conducted via the professionals referred to as brokers or dealers and are registered investment advisors. They are bound by a fiduciary duty and act towards their clients’ best interest. These advisors are also asset management companies. Usually, the high earning individuals who are willing to invest and grow their wealth, take the assistance of these asset management companies and focus on generating more money for them. Wall Street can also be considered as a repository for investments across various securities. Wall Street is most commonly known for facilitating buying and selling shares. Individual investors trade the shares of outstanding stocks via their retirement and brokerage accounts. These investors are interested in the daily fluctuations of some of the major indices. Dow Jones Industrial Average and S&P 500 stock market indices have big players and investors trading every day.  Image Source: Shutterstock What is the role of market makers on Wall Street?  The trading revolves around the market makers at Wall Street and they usually facilitate the action in the market and earn a fee for providing their services. A lot many factors decide the movement of prices of traded securities. A mix of factors like sector news, management changes, company performances etc. decide if the prices are going up or down. However, market makers are also one of the biggest factors which have an impact on the share prices. There are individual professionals on the exchange floors facilitating these factors. The electronic communication networks are also part of market makers. Each transaction conducted on the securities exchange requires a party to take the opposite side. 

What is Return on Advertising Spend (ROAS)?  Return on Advertising Spend (ROAS) is an essential metric for advertisers. In the highly competitive world today, businesses implement every strategy backed by robust data. Marketers are continually improving the metric to evaluate the amount spent in the advertisement space and see if it's going in the right direction. There are various tools such as quality score, click-through rate, cost per conversion to evaluate the marketing spent.   What is the significance of ROAS? Kalkine Image While keeping the focus at the core metrics, marketers also need to look at the larger picture. The ROAS metric, thereby, offers key answers to the fundamental marketing question. That is if the marketing spend is X amount, what is it that the company is getting out of it. ROAS provides that larger picture to the marketers. It gives them insight into the lead conversions and also how much of the revenue the conversion actions are generating.  Advertisement is an investment, into your product or services and eventually the brands. It is an important step in creating brand loyalty and brand awareness. If your advertisement and marketing strategy as a business is not profitable, and it's not giving the desired results, it is not worth the investment. Hence the ROAS metric helps marketers understand the correct results of their marketing channels and if it's worth it.  Marketers set the ROAS goals for the business to evaluate the strategy and the spend. By calculating return on ad spends, businesses can measure the returns on every penny they spent on advertising.  Why is ROAS a critical tool?  Return on ad spend (ROAS) is similar to the return on investment (ROI). The overall effectiveness of the marketing implementation is evaluated through ROI. On the other hand, ROAS is relied upon to evaluate the effectiveness of the specific marketing campaign or advertisement. ROAS provides a result on the ad set if it's worth time and money. It also gives clarity on whether the target audience is getting impacted or not. ROAS is used to evaluate traditional marketing as well as digital marketing. Public relations spend can also be assessed through ROAS metrics. How to calculate the effectiveness of ROAS? The formula to calculate ROAS is straightforward. Divide the revenue by the cost of advertising, and you will get the result if your investment was worth the spent.  Businesses do acknowledge that it is incredibly important to know the end results and performance report of advertisement, be it traditional or digital. ROAS allows them to recognise whether their marketing strategies are working for them or not.  If the ROAS is profitable as predicted, then the campaign has higher chances of being successful. ROAS works primarily in regard to the launch of a new product or services. While bringing in fresh efforts, companies need to determine if the particular ad campaign they are running is giving them the anticipated results. If not, marketers then pull back the campaign or make the changes in it as required.  No matter how effective the ad campaign looks like while launching, if it's not going to work, then it is of no use, and the company will face significant losses.  ROAS works best for digital marketing, as there are precise tools available to track back the response. Digital marketing evaluation is done by tracking leads and conversions. There are tools like Google Analytics which are used to determine the ad campaign results.  For ATL marketing such as TV commercials and radio ads, the reach and the frequency are calculated to determine the success.  Return on ad spend evaluation can be very specific and also broad. The metrics can be used in various ways to get the results. If the company has a marketing agency on board, then the agency will calculate the ROAS for the campaign and provide data to the company. Tools such as Google AdWords and Google Analytics or other such services help the companies understand if they are meeting the set achievable numbers and goals or not.  For instance, a specific web banner advertisement is not giving the desired leads or the leads are generated but they are not useful as they are not the target audience to the company. In such cases, marketers can quickly change the course of action.  ROAS also provides data on conversion rates, the higher the conversion rate, the higher ROAS is.  ALSO READ: TikTok Added to EN1’s IconicReach Platform; April Yields Strongest Revenue on Programmatic Advertising Product   Is ROAS data always accurate?  The study shows that ROAS has its own limitations. Every evaluation metric will give you the results based on the data it has in its custody. But there will be a lot of more external factors affecting the ad campaign results.  ROAS results may also differ when the products have a higher cost of production and shipment compared to the ad budget. So even if the ROAS is higher, the company still loses money. Because the combined expenses are higher than the overall costs of the advertising. Though in such instances, the marketing campaign can even be called successful. As the marketers have received the desired results through the ad campaign. Notably, the cost of advertising is the only factor considered while calculating the ROAS, and not the production cost.  It is incredibly difficult to calculate ROAS for traditional marketing, as there is no exact mechanism available. Unless the marketers put a call to action and have a call centre to track response, it is difficult to follow how many people saw the billboard on the highway and bought the product.  Apart from the standard ROAS metric, marketers often review their set benchmarks to evaluate the success of the ad campaign. When you know what parameters worked best for the product or services you launched, then the marketers can use a similar margin to determine the necessary ROAS. Conversion actions and campaigns can be identified and measured after setting a benchmark from the previous goals.

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