Terms Beginning With 'a'


  • January 11, 2020
  • Team Kalkine

What is an asset?

An asset is an item that is invested in with the intention of gaining future benefits from it. An asset can be any item that holds monetary value. Any individual or organisation can own an asset that promises them a future financial benefit or a stream of income.

Assets can be tangible or intangible. For instance, land is an asset as it can be loaned out in exchange for rent. Similarly, a patent, which is intangible, can also be considered as an asset as it provides monetary value to the owner of the patent.

How is an item categorised as an asset?

All assets hold three fundamental properties that set them apart from any other type of holdings or investments by firms and individuals. These include:

  • Ownership: Assets involve the concept of ownership. The owner of the asset must pay for it and should benefit from the future income stream. This ownership is what allows the owner to gain monetary benefits from the asset.
  • Economic Value: Assets are items that hold some form of monetary value and are not entirely worthless. This is important because an item can only be sold, loaned, or exchanged in the market when it holds some value.
  • Future Benefit: This quality is what sets an asset apart from any other item purchased by an individual or a company. For any resource or object to be categorised as an asset for the owner, there must be a stream of income that it promises in the future. For instance, an individual might consider a family heirloom as an asset. However, the economic value associated with it might not be much. So, if the heirloom were to be exchanged in the market, it would not be of any benefit to the owner. Hence, it is not an asset.

What are the types of assets?

Assets can be divided into various types based on different categorisations. Broadly, assets can be divided into the following types:

  • Personal Assets: These are the assets owned by individuals or households, and they generate some value for the owner. These may include property, jewellery, physical cash and cash equivalents, savings accounts, and investments such as bonds, pensions, mutual funds, etc.
  • Business Assets: These assets are held by companies and are held with the intention of generating profits. These assets are added in the balance sheet of a company while the liabilities are subtracted from them. Assets may serve different purposes in a business. Individual businesses may use physical assets like machinery and equipment to produce output.

While other intangible assets can be used for profit generation in the future, simply by selling them, for instance, a company might sell the intellectual property rights of one of their products to gain profits from them.

Based on how easily the assets can be converted into cash, they can be further categorised into different types:

  • Current Assets: Assets that can be easily converted into liquid money are current assets. The time frame for this conversion is typically under a year. These may include cash and cash equivalents, account receivables, inventory, marketable securities, short-term deposits.

These assets help finance the day to day operations of a business and thus, are easily convertible into liquid money.

  • Fixed or Non-Current Assets: These assets can not be easily converted into cash. They are typically used in the production process and can last more than a year. They are recorded in the balance sheet under the headings “property, plant and equipment”. They are long term assets and are generally tangible assets. Some examples of fixed assets include building, vehicles, machinery, office furniture.

Assets can be categorised based on their usage into Operating and Non-Operating Assets. Operating assets are the assets used daily, while Non-Operating Assets are not used as frequently but are still crucial for a business. Operating assets would include cash, machinery, equipment patents, etc. In comparison, non-operating assets would consist of short-term investments or land or real estate that might come in usage later and do not have an immediate requirement.

Assets may also be categorised based on their physical existence into tangible and non-tangible assets. Tangible assets are physical assets like land, building machinery, inventory, while intangible assets may include various other aspects of a business that do not have a physical existence like goodwill, copyrights, trademarks, licenses and permits, intellectual property, etc.

How are assets valued?

The value of an asset held by an individual or an organisation at a time may not be equal to what it was at the time when it was bought. The value of an asset is affected by factors like depreciation and fair value.

In case of a physical asset, depreciation is the wear and tear that an asset undergoes with the course of time. However, depreciation can be generalised as the process of spreading the cost of an asset over time. It decreases the value of an asset or an item over time.

Fair value refers to the market value of an asset at a point of time. If an asset of a company was to be sold in the market five years after it was bought, then the fair value of the asset refers to the amount that it would sell for at that point. This value is derived through the process of fair market value analysis, where prices of other assets are compared to the asset in question. Some professionals are skilled at calculating fair value.

Accounts receivable financing is a method of selling accounts receivables to obtain cash for the company's operations. Accounts receivable is one of the liquid assets and can be tracked using the quick ratio.

DWC measures average number of days taken by a company to transform working capital (current assets ? current liabilities) into sales revenue. It is a strong indicator of efficient management of working capital, which is calculated by dividing working capital to sales.

What is EBITDA? Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation, and Amortisation (EBITDA) is a widely used financial metric in evaluating cash flows and profitability of a business. Market participants closely track EBITDA and apply it in decision making extensively. Although conventional investors like Charlie Munger had raised concerns over the use of EBITDA, it is very popular in markets, and M&A transactions are mostly priced on EBITDA-based valuation like EV/EBITDA (x). EBITDA is not recognised by IFRS and GAAP but is used extensively in the Corporate Finance world. It is now a mainstream financial metric that companies look to target. EBITDA depicts operational cash generation capacity of a firm in a given period. It acts as an alternative to financial metrics like revenue, profit or earnings per share. EBITDA allows to evaluate a business operationally and outcomes of operating decisions. Non-operating items are excluded to arrive at EBITDA. EBITDA excludes the impact of capital structure or debt/equity, and non-cash expenses like depreciation and amortisation. A particular criticism of EBITDA has been the inappropriate outlook of capital intensive businesses, which incur large depreciation expenses. Business with large assets incurs substantial costs related to repair and maintenance, which are not captured in EBITDA because depreciation expenses are accounted to calculate EBITDA. Meanwhile, EBITDA can paint an appropriate picture for asset-light business with lower capital intensity. While revenue, profit and earning per share remain sought-after headline generators for corporates, EBITDA has also found its growing application in the corporate finance world and is now a mainstream metric to evaluate a business financially. Perhaps the growth of asset-light business models has also added to the use of EBITDA. Its debt-agnostic approach to evaluate businesses has given reasons to investors, especially for high growth firms during capital expenditure cycles. But EBITDA has been present for close to four decades now. In the 1980s, the growth in corporate takeovers through leverage buyout transaction was on a boom. EBITDA grew popular to value heavy industries like broadcasting, telecommunication, utilities. John Malone is credited for coining this term. He was working at TCI- a cable TV provider. Since EBITDA has remained an important metric to determine purchase price multiples and is highly used in M&A transactions. EBITDA’s application in large businesses with capital intensive assets that are written down over a long period has been a source of concern for many investors. Although EBITDA is an effective metric to evaluate the profitability of a firm, it does not reflect actual cash flow picture of a firm during a period. Also, it does not account for capital expenditures of the firm, which are crucial in successfully running a business. EBITDA does not give a fair cash flow position because it leaves out crucial items like working capital, debt and interest repayments, fixed expenses, capital expenditure. At the outset, there can be times when EBITDA may overstate performance, value and ability to repay debt. How to calculate EBITDA? NPAT: Net Profit after tax is the amount reported by a firm in the given period. It is present on the income statement of the firm and is used in the calculation of earnings per share of an entity. To calculate EBITDA, interest expense, tax, depreciation and amortisation are added to NPAT. Interest Expense: Firms can employ debt in their capital structure, and interest expense is funds paid to lenders as interest costs on principal debt. Most companies have different financing structure, and excluding interest payments enable comparing firms on operating grounds through EBITDA. Tax: Firms also pay income tax on profits. Excluding taxes gives a fair picture of the operating performance of the business since tax vary across jurisdictions, and sometimes according to size of business as well. Depreciation: Depreciation is the non-cash expense to account for the steady reduction in value of tangible assets. Firms can incur depreciation expense on machinery, vehicles, office assets, equipment etc.  Amortisation: Amortisation is the non-cash expense to account for the reduction in the value of intangible assets like patents, copyrights, export license, import license etc. Operating Profit: Operating profit is the core profit of a firm generated out of operations. It includes cash and non-cash expenses of a firm, excluding income tax and interest expenses. Operating Profit is also called Earnings Before Interest and Tax (EBIT). Read: EBIT vs EBITDA What is TTM EBITDA and NTM EBITDA? Trailing Twelve Months (TTM) or Last Twelve Months (LTM) EBITDA represents the EBITDA of the past twelve months of the firm. It allows to review the last operation performance of the business. Whereas NTM EBITDA represents 12-month forward forecast EBITDA of the firm. NTM EBITDA is also one-year forward EBITDA. Market participants are provided with consensus analysts’ estimates for a firm, which also include NTM EBITDA, NTM EPS, NTM Net Income or NPAT. What is EBITDA margin? EBITDA margin is the percentage proportion of a firm EBITDA against total revenue. It indicates the operational profitability of the firm and cash flows to some extent. If a firm has a higher margin, it means the level of EBITDA against revenue is higher. It is widely used in comparing similar companies and enable to evaluate businesses relatively. If a firm has a total revenue of $1 million and EBITDA is $800k, the EBITDA margin is 80%. What is adjusted EBITDA? Adjusted EBITDA is calculated to provide a fair view business after adding back non-cash items, one-time expenses, unrealised gains and losses, share-based payments, goodwill impairments, asset write-downs etc.

What is Earnings Per Share? EPS is the per share profit by a business in a given period. While analysing a business financially, it serves as one of the basic tools. EPS is calculated by dividing profits by total shares outstanding for a given period. EPS is reported on the profit and loss statement of an enterprise and works as a denominator for beloved price-to-earnings ratio (P/E ratio), used not just by novice investors but also fund managers. A business is required to generate sustainable earnings in its life cycle, and earnings or profits are essentially among major intend of a promotor. To know more about P/E ratio read: Understanding Price-Earnings Ratio But reported earnings of a business will likely differ from actual cash earnings because devising profits mandate broader accounting standards and principles to provide a fair picture of an enterprise. EPS, therefore, becomes imperative for investors, market participants and other users of information. EPS estimates are circulated by sell-side analysts to market participants. Financial Modelling is applied to arrive at the EPS estimates of future financial years, semi-annual periods or quarterly, depending on the reporting adopted by the firm. Analyst estimates are then collected by market data providers like Reuters, Bloomberg, IRESS to provide a consensus view of analysts on the business and its financials, including revenue, operating expense, earnings before interest and tax, profit after tax, EPS. Market estimates enable participants to evaluate the expectations of sell-side analysts from a particular company, sector or even index. Analyst estimates also indicate the divergence between an individual’s expectations and collective expectations of analysts that are tracking the company. An individual can, therefore, determine whether the stock of the company is undervalued or overpriced by the market against hi one’s fair value estimates that are based on the expectations from the company. More on EPS read: What Do We Mean By Earnings Per Share (EPS)? How to calculate EPS? Although general formula considers total shares outstanding in the denominator, it is preferred to use weighted average shares outstanding over a period because companies issue new shares, buyback or cancel shares. Net Income is the profit reported by a business after incurring income tax. It is also called as Net Profit After Tax. Dividends on Preferred Shares are paid to preferential shareholders because they have first right over the income of a business, but preferred shares don’t have voting rights like common shareholders or ordinary shareholders. Weighted Average Shares Outstanding is calculated after incorporating changes in number of shares during a period, and using weighted average shares outstanding provides a fair financial position of a company. Basic V/S Diluted EPS Diluted EPS is calculated after adding the weighted average number of shares that would be issued after the conversion of dilutive shares to weighted average shares outstanding. Dilutions can include share rights, performance rights, convertible bonds etc. Whereas Basic EPS is calculated by taking weighted average shares outstanding that incorporate changes to number of shares outstanding such as buyback, new issues etc. What is Adjusted-EPS? In a financial period, firms may incur one-time expenses or transactions that are not usual in the normal course of business. The objective of adjusted EPS is to arrive at a fair picture of the business, especially for financial forecasting. Extraordinary items are excluding from EPS to arrive at adjusted EPS figure. These items can include gain on sale of assets, loss on sale of assets, merger costs, capital raising costs, integration expenses etc. What is Normalised EPS? Normalised EPS is calculated to arrive at an EPS figure, which embeds the fluctuations in income due to business cycles or industry cycles. It also includes adjustments made for calculation of adjusted EPS such as one-time gains or losses. Normalised EPS is a useful measure for companies that are sensitive to economic cycles or changes in the business environment. By smoothening out the fluctuations, it provides a fair picture of the business. If a company has reported high normalised earnings over periods, it is considered that the company is less sensitive to changes in business cycles because of its stable revenues and income during the periods. EPS and Price-to-earnings ratio Calculation of price-to-earnings ratio requires EPS as denominator and price of the stock as numerator. EPS therefore becomes a very important financial metric for investors. EPS and price data also allows participants to compare the historical trends of the P/E ratio with the current market scenario and P/E ratio of the stock. How can increase grow EPS? Businesses can increase EPS by focusing on increasing their revenue, by improving operational efficiencies either by deploying technology to reduce cost, or negotiate better prices with vendors, operate in tax efficient manner, etc. Businesses can also improve EPS by undertaking corporate action such as buying back of shares. Read: Pros and cons of buybacks – Story of 5 Popular Stocks including Aurizon Good read: Every Doubt You Have On Earnings Per Share- Explained Right Here!

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