Terms Beginning With 'c'

Chief Operating Officer (COO)

Who is a Chief Operating Officer?

A Chief Operating Officer (COO) is deemed as the second person in the chain of command who looks into the day-to-day business functions.  A COO reports to the CEO (Chief Executive Officer) of the Company.

A COO is also known as chief operations officer or operations director or even executive vice president of operations.

To become a COO, an individual must have strong analytical, managerial, communication and leadership skills.

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What are the major roles of a Chief Operating Officer?

As per the Company's established business model, the COO executes the business plan. While the CEO of a company is concerned with long-term growth and broader company outlook, the COO takes care of implementing the strategies.

The role of COO differs from one industry to another and also from Company to Company. Hence it isn't easy to highlight the list of duties of a COO precisely.

Below is a list of some of the COO responsibilities, most common in all industries and businesses.

Some of the key responsibilities of a COO are mentioned below:

  • Looking into day-to-day business and keep the CEO updated on any significant development.
  • Take care of creating an operations strategy as well as policies.
  • Communicate the strategies and policies to the employees.
  • Responsible for nurturing employee alignment with business objectives.
  • Responsible for managing human resource management.

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What are the different types of COOs?

There are seven types of COOs, according to HBR (Harvard Business Review):

  • The executor: One of the COO's role is the execution of plans developed by the CEO or the Company’s top management. As an executor, the COO keeps an eye on the day to day operations within the Company. As CEO looks after the achieving Company's vision, mission, and large-scale decision, the COO can support the CEO in streamlining the process and help reduce the CEO's responsibilities by observing the business’s inner workings.
  • The Change Agent: This type is seen in companies undergoing sluggishness concerning vision and market performance. In such a situation, companies introduce COO as a change agent responsible for re-energising public interest in the business. These COOs can sometimes belong to different industries with unique skillset and experience.
  • The Mentor: A COO could also be a mentor to the CEO. To explain this, let us say that a Company's CEO is the founder of the Company’s products offered to the client. At some point in time, it may be possible that the CEO's expertise does not meet the new requirements in the product. Hence, in such a case, a COO could be a mentor and can guide the CEO. He/She would be a seasoned professional with the potential to aid the CEO in making a business decision.
  • The Other Half: COO could also counter the experience of the CEO. It could be possible that the CEO could sometimes be impulsive and unpredictable. In that case, the COO could be grounded and thinks logically. Thus, allowing the CEO to think abstractly. COO supports the CEO and stabilises the catering to the employees’ need for constant instruction, communication, and information.
  • The successor: Being the second-in-charge after the CEO, the COO can be considered for the next role if the CEO plans to retire from his position. Being in close contact with the CEO, the COO has a clear idea about the business.
  • The MVP: Many companies provide their senior employees opportunities to move up the ladder and become COO by promoting them if they show a high level of value to the Company. This way, the Companies try to hedge their position by stopping to look for any specific successor or setting a leadership succession timeframe.
  • The Partner: COO can also work as a partner with the Company's CEO. Although the CEO ranks above COO, still CEO and COO have nearly equal standing in the Company and function as a single entity.

What are the must-have traits of a COO?

As the COO is responsible for all the Company's operations, he/she must have a formidable skill set to support the business achieve organisational goals. Below are some of the essential traits a COO must possess.


COO takes care of the Company's performance. Still, the level of attention given to them is a part of what the CEO gets. They work mainly behind the scenes. Still, their significance does not lessen.


COOs possess excellent communication skill with the executives as well as the teams. COO must have the competence to build consensus between internal stakeholders, media conflicts and discuss.

COOs might also have to act as a spokesperson for the staff and C-suite of the Company.

Think strategically

As highlighted above, a COO is a person that can think strategically. He is the one that can convert the CEO's vision into a reality with quantifiable outcomes. He/she takes care of all the operations to reach the Company's Common strategy and goals.


COOs are also responsible for delegating the task to various departments within the Company. They also look into each department's strengths and weaknesses and accordingly delegate the task to each member to contribute to the Company's goals and vision.

Appreciate talent

One of the features of the COO is that he/she appreciates talent within the organisation. COO look for ways to improve the Company by strengthening the pipeline of talent via strong hire and providing opportunities to develop existing team members’ skills. 


As COO is responsible for the Company's operation, they rely on data for making any decision. Instead of allowing business to be guided by gut feelings, internal politics and instincts, best COOs always prefer to look at the numbers to drive the business.

What is accounts payable? Accounts Payable (AP) is an obligation that an individual or a company has to fulfill for purchasing goods and services bought from their suppliers and vendors. AP refers to the amount that is not paid upfront and can be paid back in a short period of time. Hence, a good or a service purchased on credit to be paid in a short period will fall under AP. For individuals, AP may include the bill paid after availing services such as television network, electricity, internet connection, or telephone. Most of the time, the bill is generated after the designated billing period, depending upon the amount of consumption. The customers have to pay this obligation within a stipulated time to avoid default. What is accounts payable from a Company’s point of View? AP is the amount of money a company is liable to pay to its suppliers or vendors and clear dues for purchases of goods and services purchased from its suppliers or vendors. AP is required to be repaid in a short period, depending on the relationship with suppliers. It is essentially a kind of short-term debt, which is necessary to honour to prevent default. As the current liabilities of the company, AP is required to be settled over the next twelve months. It is presented in the balance sheet as the account payable balance. For example, Entity A buys goods from Entity B for US$400,000.00 on Credit. Entity A has to pay back this amount within 60 days. Entity A will record US$400,000.00 as AP while Entity B will record the same amount as Account receivable. AP is also a part of the cash flow statement. The change in the total AP over a period is shown in the cash flow statement, hence it is part of the company’s working capital. It is widely used in analysing the cash flow of the business and cash flow trends over a period. AP may also depict the bargaining power of the company with its vendor and suppliers. A vendor or supplier may give the customer a longer credit period to settle the cash compared to other customers. The customer here is the company, which will incur AP after buying goods on credit from the vendor. There could be many reasons why the vendor is providing a more extended credit period to the firm such as long-term relationship, bargaining power of the firm, strategic needs of the vendor, the scale of goods or services. By maintaining a more extended repayment period to supplier and shorter cash realisation period from the customer, the company would be able to improve the working capital cycle and need funds to support the business-as-usual. However, prudent working capital management calls for not overtly stretching the payable days as it might lead to dissatisfaction of supplier. Also, investors tend to closely watch the payable days cycle to determine the financial health of the business. When the financial conditions of a firm deteriorate, the management tends to delay the payment to their suppliers. Why accounts payable is an important part of Balance sheet and Cash Flow Statement? As inferred from the previous paragraphs, AP is part of the current liabilities of the balance sheet. This is an obligatory debt that has to be paid back within a time frame so that the company does not default. AP primarily consists of payments to be made to suppliers. If AP keeps on increasing over a period of time, it can be said that the company is purchasing goods or services on credit more, instead of paying up front. If AP decreases, it means the company is reducing its previous debts more than it is buying goods on credit. Managing AP is essential to have a stable cash flow. In a cash flow statement prepared through an indirect method, the net difference in AP is shown under cash flow from operating activities. The business entity can use AP to create the desired variation in the cash flow to some extent. For example, to increase cash reserves, management can increase the duration of paying back the credit taken for a certain period, thus affecting the net difference in AP. What Is the Role of Accounts Payable Department? Every company has an accounts payable department and the size and structure depend upon how big or small the enterprise is. The AP department is formed based on the estimated number of suppliers, vendors, and service providers the company is expected to interact with; the amount of payment volume that would be processed in a given period of time; and the nature of reports that a management will require. For example, a tiny firm with a low volume of purchase transactions may require a simple or a basic accounts payable process.  However, a medium or a large enterprise may have a accounts payable department that may require a set of practices to be followed before paying back the credit. What is the Accounts Payable Process? Guidelines or a process is important as it provides transparency and smoothness in facilitating the volume of transactions in any time period.  The process involves: Bill receipt: when goods were bought, a bill records the quantity of goods received and the amount that needs to be paid to the vendors. Assessing the bill details: to ensure that the bill or invoice copy includes the name of the vendor, authorization, date of the purchase made and to verify the requirements regarding the purchase order. Updating book of records after the bill is collected: Ledger accounts need to be revised on the basis of bills received. The department makes an expense entry after taking approval from management. Timely payment processing: the department takes care of all payments that need to be processed on or before their due date as mentioned on a bill. The department prepares and verifies all the required documents. All details entered on the cheque along with bank account details of the vendor, payment vouchers, the purchase order, and the original bill and purchase order are scrutinized. The department also takes care of the safety of the company’s cash and assets and prevents: reimbursing a fake invoice reimbursing an incorrect invoice making double payment of the same vendor invoice Apart from making supplier payments, AP departments also takes care of travel expenses, making internal payments, maintaining records of vendor payments, and reducing costs Business Travel Expenses: Bigger entities or firms whose business nature requires all personnel to travel, have their AP department manage their travel costs. The AP department manages the personnel’s travel by making advance payments to travel companies including airlines and car rentals and making hotel reservations. An account payable department may also deals with requests and fund distribution to cover travel costs. After business travel, AP may also be responsible for settling funds supplied versus actual funds spent. Internal Payments: The Accounts Payable department takes care of internal reimbursement payments distribution, controlling and petty cash controlling and administering, and controlling sales tax exemption certificates distribution. Internal reimbursement payments include receipts or both substantiate reimbursement requests. Petty cash controlling and administering includes petty expenses such as out-of-pocket office supplies or miscellaneous postage, company meeting lunch. Sales tax exemption certificates comprise AP department handling sales tax exemption certificates supply to managers to make sure qualifying business purchases excludes sales tax expense. Maintaining Records of Vendor Payments: Accounts Payable maintains information of vendor contact, terms of payment and information of Internal Revenue Service W-9 either manually or on a computer database. The AP department lets management know through reports on how much the business owes at present. Other Functions: The accounts payable department is also responsible to lessen costs by identifying cost structures and creating strategies to reduce the spending of business money. For example, minimising cost by making payment of the invoice within a discount period. The AP department also acts as a direct point of contact between an entity and the vendor. How to Calculate Accounts Payable in Financial Modelling Financial modelling enables calculating the average number of days a company takes to make bill payments. AP days can be calculated using the following formula: AP value can be calculated using the following formula: What is accounts payable turnover ratio? AP turnover ratio shows the capability of a firm to pay cash to its customer after credit purchases. It is counted as an essential ratio to analyse the cash management attribute of the firm and its relationship with vendors or suppliers. It is calculated by dividing purchases by average AP. Purchases by the company are calculated as the sum of the cost of sales and net inventory in a given period: Now let’s understand this with the help of an example. Let us suppose, Cost of sales of Company XYZ for the period was $60,000, and XYZ began with inventories worth $21000 and ended at $15000. AP at the beginning was $20000, and $15000 at the end. Now the purchases will be $66000 (60000+21000-15000). The average AP will be $17500. Therefore, the AP turnover ratio will be 3.77x. Dividing the number of weeks in a year by the AP turnover ratio will give the number of weeks the company takes on average to settle its payables. In this case, it will be around 13.8 weeks (52/3.77). What is the difference between Accounts Payable vs. Trade Payables? Though the phrases "accounts payable" and "trade payables" are used interchangeably, the phrases have slight differences. Trade payables is the cash that a company is obligated to pay to its vendors for goods and supplies which are part of the inventory. Accounts payable include all of the short-term debts or obligations of a company.

An earnings announcement is a public statement of a company’s earnings, usually done on a periodic basis. These official announcements are released quarterly or yearly to inform the investors and the market about a company’s financial performance. Companies announce their financial reports through press releases on their websites and list them on the stock exchanges website. After the information is released through a conference call, there is a question-and-answer round with the senior management in which analysts, media, and investors can participate. On the basis of the report, analysts then incorporate earning measures such as EPS (Earning Per Share). These reports help investors in making sound investment decisions. Earnings results are announced during the earnings season on a date chosen by the company. Stock prices of the companies take a swing before and after the company releases its earnings report. Equity analysts also predict earnings estimates through their analysis which drives stock prices movement due to speculations. Stock prices even move after the earning results are declared, up or down, depending on how the results have turned out. Source: Copyright © 2021 Kalkine Media Pty Ltd. When are earning announcements made? It is mandatory for every listed company to report its quarterly financial results in the US but not in Australia. In Australia, companies release their financial report on a semi-annual basis. Having said that, many Australian companies also update their shareholders quarterly, but these are not considered official earnings. These quarterly reports are released to satisfy the market demand for information and to disclose the company’s guidance on its performance. The financial calendar varies from country to country and therefore, the earnings season changes as well. In the US, the earnings season starts after the final month of the financial quarter. Usually, American companies start posting their earnings reports in January, April, July, and October. In Australia, companies report twice a year, usually around February and August, or May and October. It depends upon the company’s financial cycle. However, whether quarterly in the US or semi-annually in Australia, these earnings results are required as agreed while listing the company with the stock exchanges. Source: Copyright © 2021 Kalkine Media Pty Ltd. Why are earnings announcements necessary? Financial results help investors, media, and other stakeholders of the company to have a greater understanding of the company’s financial footing. Companies not just provide sales, operating profit, net profits, but also offer guidance and outlook for coming months. Additionally, these reports also have senior management statements directed at the market. Therefore, earning announcements act as an informative document for the investors and analysts to study and gauge a company’s performance. Analysts can provide earnings estimates, and investors can then take wise investment decisions. These documents are also vital for companies when it comes to seeking funding for the business. Financial institutions can also judge a company’s financial health by evaluating earnings reports. The management offers insights on growth drivers, risk factors, etc that impacted the earnings during that particular period. Analysts also assess the earnings results, taking into account the external factors that drove the growth or impacted the firm negatively. These factors could be mergers and acquisitions, bankruptcies, economic discrepancies, policy changes, etc. For investors, earnings reports are essential because these announcements swing the price up or down. Traders keep a keen eye on these reports as it can be a time when they can confirm positions. However, some investors also avoid earnings seasons because of the involvement of various human factors.

Earnings Before Interest Taxes and Amortisation (or EBITA) is an operating performance measure of a company, which assist investors in comparing companies stripped of their capital allocation decisions, post considering the depreciation into account.

Earnings before interest and taxes (or EBIT) is also called the operating income that reflects the revenue generated by the business after considering all the operating expenses, i.e., revenue minus operating expense, and is a measure of operating earnings or profit before interest and taxes. Financial analysts generally use EBIT to analyse the performance of the core operations of a company without incorporating the costs of the capital structure and tax.

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