- There are 10 main companies ahead in the race for COVID-19 vaccines
- More than 100 companies are in the preclinical stage
- The vaccines reflect different levels of efficacy
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), there are 10 companies involved in the development of COVID-19 vaccines and are conducting various stages of trials. These are the main companies, but there are over 100 companies involved in the preclinical stages. These 10 companies that are ahead in the race for COVID-19 vaccines include:
Oxford University/ AstraZeneca/Serum Institute of India
This is one of the top contenders for the most suitable vaccine technology for the COVID-19 vaccine. It’s a partnership between Oxford University, AstraZeneca, and Serum Institute of India, for development and global distribution of the Oxford’s vaccine. This vaccine has gone through all three trials till phase three and AstraZeneca has placed the efficacy rate of the vaccine from 79% to 76% recently. The Company has started trials on children between 6-17-year olds, but had to stop the trials mid-way. However, it has been granted emergency use authorisation in more than 50 countries, and the WHO has also given it access to 145 countries through the COVAX programe.
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BioNTech and Pfizer
This is a joint venture that has come out with vaccines having mRNA technology. The collaboration between these two companies has brought forth a COVID-19 vaccine that claims 95% efficacy. It has gone through a phase 3 trial and is expected to produce up to 1.3 billion doses by the end of 2021. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has declared the vaccine to be safe with no significant side effects. Even for younger teens, it has been found safe, based on the testing of more than 2000 U.S. volunteers in the age groups of 12-15 years. The vaccine has approvals from various regulatory bodies like MHRA of the U.K., and the EU.
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This is a biotech start-up based out of Massachusetts, USA. This is a company that also uses mRNA technology for its COVID-19 vaccine. Moderna partnered with Lonza to produce one billion doses of this vaccine annually. This was the first company to begin human trails of its vaccine in the U.S. and has completed all three phases of its trials. The efficacy for this vaccine has been put at 94% after the clinical trials.
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Johnson & Johnson
This company has a tie-up with one of the biggest pharma companies, Merck & Co, and has produced adenovirus-base vaccine. It has conducted all three phases of trials and this is a single-dose vaccine. FDA has approved it for the use by individuals above 18 years of age and older.
Headquartered in Pennsylvania, it’s a U.S-based start-up committed to DNA-based medicines to save and protect lives globally. Its vaccine is INO-4800, a DNA-based COVID-19 vaccine with electroporation. It has partnered with German company Richter-Helm BioLogics to support the manufacturing of INO-4800. Phase 1 trials have been completed and phase 2 trials are underway in South Korea and China.
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Headquartered in Tianjin, China, it is a biotechnology company committed to vaccine research and devlopment. The vaccine is called Ad5-nCOV. Its vaccine is Adenvirus Type 5 Vector. It has a partnership with Academy of Military Medical Sciences’ Institute of Biotechnology, and the PLA of China. Its about to complete all trials, and in phase 3 trials which started last September, 40,000 people participated. Trials are going on to see if this vaccine can be inhaled.
Headquartered in Beijing, China, it has produced PiCoVacc. Sinovac is partnering with the leading research institute in China. A phase 3 trial conducted in Brazil also revealed that two doses were required to be administered at an interval of 14 days and had an efficacy of more than 50% against symptomatic COVID-19 infection and 100% against severe infections. The vaccination also showed a 100% efficacy against hospitalisation. WHO is supporting this vaccine. It gave an assurance to countries that the vaccine by Sinovac met all international standards of safety and efficacy.
Wuhan Institute of Biological Products
This is again a state-owned institute that has developed an inactivated COVID-19 vaccine. This is grown in pathogens, bacteria and virus particles that don’t have disease-producing ability. It is partnering with China’s state-owned pharmaceutical group (Sinopharm).
This Company is headquartered in MD, the USA. It partnered with US-based biologics contract Development Manufacturing Orgnisation (CDMO) to manufacture the antigen component. It has not completed three trials in the US. In its phase 3 trial in the UK, Novavax COVID-19 vaccine is proved to have 89.3% efficacy. Noavax expects to receive an approval soon based on the results of the third phase trials of U.K.
Beijing Institute of Biological Products/Sinopharm
Inactive SARS-CoV-2 vaccine is designed to trigger an individual’s immune response. It has partnered with Beijing Institute of Biological Products. Its phase 1 and 2 clinical trials are going on, and the company is expected to move to the third one soon. Based on interim date, it has been reported that the vaccine has 79.34% efficacy against the disease. In case of use on children and teens, a study is being conducted in the UAE for children aged between 3 and 17 years. While the results are awaited, it has got approvals from the UAE regulatory body and the Chinese government.